Put & Call Options

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A call optionoften simply labeled a "call", is a financial contract between two parties, the buyer and the seller of this type of option. The seller or "writer" is obligated to sell the commodity or financial instrument to the buyer if the buyer so decides. The buyer pays a fee called a premium for this right. The term "call" comes from the fact that the owner has the right to "call the stock away" from the seller.

Option values vary with the value of the underlying instrument over time. The price of the put and call option contract contract must reflect the "likelihood" or chance of the call finishing in-the-money. The call contract price generally will be higher when the contract has more time to expire except in cases when a significant dividend is present and when the underlying financial instrument shows more volatility.

Determining this value put and call option contract one of the central functions of financial mathematics. The most common method used is the Black—Scholes formula. Importantly, the Black-Scholes formula provides an estimate of the price of European-style options.

Adjustment to Call Option: When a call option is in-the-money i. Some of them are as follows:. Similarly if the buyer is making loss on his position i. Trading options involves a constant monitoring of the option value, which is affected by the following factors:. Moreover, the dependence of the option value to put and call option contract, volatility and time is not linear — which makes the analysis even more complex.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about financial options. For call options in general, see Option law. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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In Brief Put and call options are a useful way of allowing parties to enter into an agreement to sell or acquire land at a future point in time, requiring minimum upfront commitment. In the most simplistic of terms, rights granted under a put and call option are a future right to compel a seller to sell land the "call option" , or a buyer to buy land the "put option". This article will cover some of the basic and common features of put and call options.

A call option is granted by a seller of land in favour of a buyer. It is an enforceable right that, when exercised by a buyer, requires the seller to sell the land the subject of the call option to the buyer. A call option is beneficial to a buyer, with some of the main advantages being:. A put option is the opposite of a call option, and is granted by a buyer in favour of a seller of land. The buyer grants an enforceable right to the seller, which allows the seller to require the buyer to buy the land the subject of the put option, at a future point in time.

Put and call options are documents by way of deed. The usual technical term for the parties to an option deed are:. The option deed must have annexed to it a complete and valid contract for sale and purchase of land in addition to other technical documents.

This therefore requires all aspects of the transaction to be agreed before the option deed is entered into eg, purchase price, deposit and settlement period. Once the relevant option is exercised by a party, the contract for sale and purchase of land that is annexed to the option deed becomes binding on the parties and the transaction progresses as a typical conveyance. Notwithstanding the abovementioned differences between a put option and a call option, the features noted below are essentially the same between the two.

Option fee As the subject matter of an option deed is an interest in land, consideration is required to be paid when the option deed is entered into ie, on exchange of option deeds. Depending on the type of option that is being agreed, the consideration is either:. If the agreement is for a put and call option, both forms of consideration are payable. The consideration can be nominal. Option exercise period A call option exercise period is a set period of time during which the buyer can exercise its call option.

A put option exercise period is a set period of time during which the buyer can exercise its put option. This timeframe is agreed by the parties before the option deed is entered into. Ordinarily, these two periods of time are sequential. If, the call option period expires and the buyer has not exercised its call option requiring the seller to sell the land, the buyer becomes precluded from doing so.

This means that the seller can exercise its put option during the put option exercise period and require the buyer to buy the land. Neither party is compelled to exercise their option during the relevant option exercise period. If neither party exercises their option, the option comes to an end at the expiration of the final option period. This means that the buyer loses the exclusive right to buy the land and the seller loses its buyer but is otherwise free to deal with the land.

Assignment A buyer who has entered into a call option deed, but has not yet exercised the call option, may be entitled to assign its rights under the call option deed to a third party.

On completion of the assignment, the third party will step into the shoes of the buyer as if it were the original buyer under the call option deed. The third party and the seller then proceed with the transaction in accordance with the terms of the call option deed.

Nominations A buyer may also be entitled to appoint one or more third parties as a nominee to exercise the call option on behalf of the buyer. The appointment of a nominee is different to an assignment where the buyer assigns its rights under the call option deed. If a nominee does exercise the call option, the contract which comes into existence will be between the nominee and the seller, instead of between the buyer and the seller. When a put option or a call option is exercised, stamp duty becomes payable by the buyer as it normally would for a standard conveyance ie, on exchange of contracts.

Stamp duty implications also arise when assigning an option or appointing a nominee to exercise an option. The stamp duty liability can be significant and specialist stamp duty advice should be sought if an assignment or nomination is considered. The above is a brief summary of some of the main matters an option deed should contain.

However, there are many more considerations to take into account. It is important that an option deed is tailored to your role in the transaction and also the outcome that you want to achieve. Swaab Attorneys' property team have in depth knowledge and experience in acting for buyers, owners groups and sellers on put and call option transactions.

We have recently acted for a number of clients who have utilised put and call options to acquire an interest in multi-titled sites or market an interest in multi-titled sites for development, DA approval and assignment. If you would like to republish this article, it is generally approved, but prior to doing so please contact the Marketing team at marketing swaab. This article is not legal advice and the views and comments are of a general nature only.

This article is not to be relied upon in substitution for detailed legal advice. Swaab Attorneys search swaab. What is a call option? A call option is beneficial to a buyer, with some of the main advantages being: What is a Put option? The usual technical term for the parties to an option deed are: Features of Put and call options Notwithstanding the abovementioned differences between a put option and a call option, the features noted below are essentially the same between the two. Depending on the type of option that is being agreed, the consideration is either: