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To boot start up any personal computer, the hardware has to load the computer operating system from some device that has the operating system software stored on it. The typical IBM PC clone uses the BIOS a program stored in a rewriteable CMOS memory chip to read a small part of a hard disk drive the bootblockwhich contains enough space to hold a bootloader program that will load the operating system from the rest of the disk drive.

The BIOS loads this bootloader program, and then that bootloader begins the process of loading the operating system perhaps directly, or perhaps loading up another intermediary stage, with more options.

The reason for the multi-stage approach, is that the initial BIOS program has to be small, and doesn't have much space to include a plethora of features. Likewise for the bootloader program stored in the bootblock of a hard drive.

However, it's able to use the rest of the drive space to hold more elaborate programs, allowing you change the way the system boots, in a variety of ways; and because it's a program on the disk drive, it can be updated, as needed, to suit the changes in disk drive technology. The average PC is running a Microsoft operating system, and their bootloader is very limited deliberately, linux boot splash option trading some degreeand usually only one operating system is supported theirs.

To boot-up an alternative system, usually requires using a different bootloader one that gives you a menu of operating system choices. GRUBlinux boot splash option trading one such bootloader. It supports the use of a menu of boot options, can automatically pick one linux boot splash option trading a timeout, or failure to load the first choiceand can also require linux boot splash option trading password before continuing to boot the system.

Now, I could get Windows to boot up, and it stopped corrupting the spare FAT32 data drive, but in rewriting a Windows bootblock, I had removed the information that GRUB had stored in the master boot record. Now I had to use a separate boot floppy disk, to boot Linux instead of Windows. Trying to restore GRUB was such an exercise in frustration that I put up with using a boot floppy for Linux for quite some time. The guides didn't cover my permutation of booting from a Windows drive with the Linux boot splash option trading loader, to a separate Linux drive, and didn't give me enough information to easily figure out how to do that.

I finally managed to restore things, and this document details what I've done. It was linux boot splash option trading the part on the Windows drive's master boot record that got lost the GRUB booter, and whatever data tells it where to find the rest of itself.

GRUB seems to name hard drives hd x devices, based on whether it's a potentially bootable hard drive, skipping devices that aren't, the exception being floppy disk drives it doesn't appear to give you a way to boot from CD - ROM s. The drive numbering begins from zero the first drive, is drive zero. I don't know why Linux installed itself with its mount points in that order.

That was how Disk Druid re-arranged linux boot splash option trading, as I added each partition. They're not in the order that I entered each partition. The extended partition is partition number four, and the following ones inside itstart counting up from number five.

It's not as if the BIOS has to be able to recognise all the partitions, it just needs to access the ones necessary to begin booting. But I don't know what they'd do if you tried having more than four primary partitions whether it'd just fail, or only find the first four, or something else.

Other computer systems don't have this limitation, I've used them, it's nothing to do with IDE drives, themselves, no matter what anybody thinks. There's no reason why a non-Windows-centric computer system would have to have the same shortcomings. That was how the system automatically set itself up.

Using labels means that the system finds the right partitions, even if you relocate them e. And you'll suffer problems if you connect two drives that have partitions with the same label names, to get around that you'd linux boot splash option trading the labels and directly refer to the device names.

Users have to deliberately mount them. It refers to the root drive used for the boot-up process by GRUBwhich is only for the boot-up process; after the boot-up has finished, and the system is linux boot splash option trading, the system has it's own root directory. I'd advise you first try what the manual tells you, before what anyone else says including myself.

If your BIOS has anti-virus features, designed to stop modifications to the hard drive boot blocks, you may have to disable it, before making any changes to your boot linux boot splash option trading some of them may prompt you before allowing changes, some may prevent any changes, without any prompting. How GRUB is used: Now, that bootloader GRUB takes over. Other booting choices can be added, merely by editing this configuration file.

GRUB sees this drive as the first floppy disk drive. System boot files kernel, etc.

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There are many ways an NST system can be booted. What file s you will need to download will depend upon how you intend to use the NST system. This file contains the full NST distribution and is known as: This compressed archive contains a snapshot of the NST web site at the time of the distribution release.

This compressed archive contains a snapshot of the NST documentation in PDF format at the time of the distribution release. First, a couple of prerequisites are needed. You must be running from an NST Live instance i. The file system on the USB flash drive must be: The next step is a little tricky.

This is done by entering the name of the device running NST Live i. Lastly, the size of your Persistence Data should be now set. Use the slider widget below the " Persistence Storage " section to select a value around 1GB depending upon the amount of space on your thumb drive.

If there was already a previous NST Live install on the USB flash drive you will be notified to erase it before the new install can proceed.

If you run into this condition, you will need to revert to using the command line. The text based console interface is the default boot more for NST Live.

If you don't type anything, your NST Live system should automatically boot in this mode. To skip the delay , simply press the Enter Key while the " Console " boot option is highlighted. When using NST on a server that has no attached keyboard or monitor, one can use the " Server Serial ttyS0 at " option.

A serial console for boot up diagnostic output and user login will be available on the server's first COM port: Additional information on using serial ports for user login can be found here: Serial Console - NST 2.

A ISO file system is a read-only file system. Booting from a read-only file system would normally reduce what you could do during a live boot. Fedora provides a clever mechanism in which the ISO file system is hidden and it appears as though the file system is writable. The method used to perform this trick involves the consumption of RAM such that each time you write a file out, a new copy is created using RAM and this RAM is then lost never recovered until the next time you reboot the system.

While handy, this mechanism of trading RAM for a writable file system can severely limit how long you can run the NST system during a live boot session. This increases how long you can keep a live boot of a NST system running. However, on rare occasions, we have seen systems where this relocation causes problems and prevents the NST system from booting correctly.

So, starting with the fall release of NST 18 released in November of , we added a kernel boot parameter which allows you to choose whether or not the NST should perform the relocation. To maximize compatibility, we have chosen to default this option to false no relocation. To change this so that the NST will perform the relocation, you will need to edit press the Tab key the boot options and change:.

For a headless server i. This boot option allows one to force GPT-Labelled disk partitioning regardless of the disk size. The key feature of the NST distribution is the ability to remotely manage the NST system using standard networking tools such as a web browser running on a Windows machine. The simplest mechanism to do this is by running the getipaddr command after logging in. This will report the IP addresses of each interface. You can use the -d option to show just the IP address associated with the default network interface.

In order to access your NST system remotely, you will need to have the sshd and https services running. When you initially boot the system these services are disabled otherwise anyone would be able to connect to your NST system using the default password. In order to change all of the passwords used for remote access and enable the sshd and https services, you can use the nstpasswd command as shown below:.

This web interface provides a comprehensive and descriptive front-end to many of the popular open source network security applications.

You will need to log in when making a connection. Use the login ID of root and the password you specified when you ran the nstpasswd command. After you have determined the IP address of your NST system and run the nstpasswd command, you should be able to connect to your NST system using a secure shell client ssh, Putty, After installing the system and changing the default password the next thing you will want to do is to grab the available updates.

Retrieved from " http: Personal tools Log in. Set Persistence Data Size.